Collective Bargaining

What is Collective Bargaining?

Collective Bargaining is the process through which employers and employees negotiate terms of employment, such as wages, hours, and working conditions. This process is typically conducted by representatives of a labor union and the employer.

Key Features of Collective Bargaining

  • Negotiation: Involves direct negotiation between union representatives and employers.
  • Collective Agreements: Results in legally binding agreements on employment terms.
  • Representation: Employees are represented by elected union officials.
  • Dispute Resolution: Provides mechanisms for resolving labor disputes.

How Does Collective Bargaining Work?

Collective Bargaining works by bringing together union representatives and employer representatives to discuss and negotiate terms of employment. The process typically involves preparing proposals, negotiating terms, and reaching a collective agreement that is ratified by both parties. This agreement governs various aspects of employment, including wages, benefits, work hours, and conditions.

Best Practices for Collective Bargaining

  • Prepare Thoroughly: Gather data and understand the needs and priorities of both parties.
  • Communicate Openly: Maintain transparent and honest communication throughout the process.
  • Focus on Interests: Aim to find mutually beneficial solutions rather than positions.
  • Use Mediation: Consider mediation services to help resolve deadlocks.


If negotiations fail, it may result in strikes, lockouts, or other industrial actions.

Yes, once ratified, collective bargaining agreements are legally binding on both parties.

Learn more